August 22, 2004 INSTALL 8 NetBSD


INSTALL - Installation procedure for NetBSD/mvme68k.



About this Document............................................2 What is NetBSD?................................................3 Changes Between The NetBSD 3.0.1 and 3.0.2 updates.............3 Kernel......................................................3 Networking..................................................3 File system.................................................3 Libraries...................................................3 Security....................................................3 Miscellaneous...............................................4 amd64 specific..............................................4 sparc specific..............................................4 mac68k specific.............................................4 Changes Between The NetBSD 3.0 release and 3.0.1 update........4 Kernel......................................................4 Networking..................................................5 File system.................................................5 Libraries...................................................5 Security....................................................6 Miscellaneous...............................................6 acorn26 specific............................................6 amiga specific..............................................6 hp300 specific..............................................6 i386 specific...............................................7 m68k specific...............................................7 mips specific...............................................7 powerpc specific............................................7 sparc specific..............................................7 xen specific................................................7 The Future of NetBSD...........................................7 Sources of NetBSD..............................................8 NetBSD 3.0.2 Release Contents..................................8 NetBSD/mvme68k subdirectory structure.......................9 Binary distribution sets...................................10 NetBSD/mvme68k System Requirements and Supported Devices......12 Supported VME147 hardware..................................13 Supported VME162/VME172 hardware...........................13 Supported VME167/VME177 hardware...........................13 Getting the NetBSD System on to Useful Media..................14 Creating boot/install tapes................................14 Boot/Install from NFS server...............................15 Install/Upgrade from CD-ROM................................16 Install/Upgrade via FTP....................................16 Preparing your System for NetBSD installation.................16 Installing the NetBSD System..................................18 Installing from tape.......................................18 Installing from NFS........................................22 Booting the miniroot.......................................24 Miniroot install program:..................................24 Running the sysinst installation program...................26 Introduction............................................26 General.................................................26 Quick install...........................................26 Booting NetBSD..........................................27 Network configuration...................................27 Installation drive selection and parameters.............27 Partitioning the disk...................................28 Preparing your hard disk................................28 Getting the distribution sets...........................28 Installation using ftp..................................29 Installation using NFS..................................29 Installation from CD-ROM................................29 Installation from an unmounted file system..............29 Installation from a local directory.....................30 Extracting the distribution sets........................30 Finalizing your installation............................30 Post installation steps.......................................30 Upgrading a previously-installed NetBSD System................33 Upgrading using the miniroot...............................33 Manual upgrade.............................................33 Compatibility Issues With Previous NetBSD Releases............34 Issues affecting an upgrade from NetBSD 2.1 and older......34 Using online NetBSD documentation.............................35 Administrivia.................................................35 Thanks go to..................................................36 We are........................................................41 Legal Mumbo-Jumbo.............................................46 The End.......................................................52


About this Document

This document describes the installation procedure for NetBSD3.0.2 on the mvme68k platform. It is available in four different formats titled INSTALL.ext, where .ext is one of .ps, .html, .more, or .txt:


Standard Internet HTML.

The enhanced text format used on UNIX-like systems by the more(1) and less(1) pager utility programs. This is the format in which the on-line man pages are generally presented.

Plain old ASCII.

You are reading the HTML version.

What is NetBSD?

The NetBSD Operating System is a fully functional Open Source UNIX-like operating system derived from the University of California, Berkeley Networking Release 2 (Net/2), 4.4BSD-Lite, and 4.4BSD-Lite2 sources. NetBSD runs on fifty four different system architectures (ports), featuring seventeen machine architectures across fifteen distinct CPU families, and is being ported to more. The NetBSD3.0.2 release contains complete binary releases for many different system architectures. (A few ports are not fully supported at this time and are thus not part of the binary distribution. For information on them, please see the NetBSD web site at

NetBSD is a completely integrated system. In addition to its highly portable, high performance kernel, NetBSD features a complete set of user utilities, compilers for several languages, the X Window System, firewall software and numerous other tools, all accompanied by full source code.

NetBSD is a creation of the members of the Internet community. Without the unique cooperation and coordination the net makes possible, it's likely that NetBSD wouldn't exist.

Changes Between The NetBSD 3.0.1 and 3.0.2 updates

The NetBSD 3.0.2 update is the second security/critical update of the NetBSD 3.0 release branch. This represents a selected subset of fixes deemed critical in nature for stability or security reasons.

These fixes will also appear in future releases (NetBSD 3.1 etc), together with other less-critical fixes and feature enhancements.

Specific updates are as follows:

File system
amd64 specific
sparc specific
mac68k specific

Changes Between The NetBSD 3.0 release and 3.0.1 update

The NetBSD 3.0.1 update is the first security/critical update of the NetBSD 3.0 release branch. This represents a selected subset of fixes deemed critical in nature for stability or security reasons.

These fixes will also appear in future releases (NetBSD 3.1 etc), together with other less-critical fixes and feature enhancements.

Specific updates are as follows:

File system
acorn26 specific
amiga specific
hp300 specific
i386 specific
m68k specific
mips specific
powerpc specific
sparc specific
xen specific

This is the eighth major release of NetBSD for the mvme68k series of boards.

The Future of NetBSD

The NetBSD Foundation has been incorporated as a non-profit organization. Its purpose is to encourage, foster and promote the free exchange of computer software, namely the NetBSD Operating System. The foundation will allow for many things to be handled more smoothly than could be done with our previous informal organization. In particular, it provides the framework to deal with other parties that wish to become involved in the NetBSD Project.

The NetBSD Foundation will help improve the quality of NetBSD by:

We intend to begin narrowing the time delay between releases. Our ambition is to provide a full release every six to eight months.

We hope to support even more hardware in the future, and we have a rather large number of other ideas about what can be done to improve NetBSD.

We intend to continue our current practice of making the NetBSD-current development source available on a daily basis.

We intend to integrate free, positive changes from whatever sources submit them, providing that they are well thought-out and increase the usability of the system.

Above all, we hope to create a stable and accessible system, and to be responsive to the needs and desires of NetBSD users, because it is for and because of them that NetBSD exists.

Sources of NetBSD

Refer to

NetBSD 3.0.2 Release Contents

The root directory of the NetBSD3.0.2 release is organized as follows:


Changes since earlier NetBSD releases.

Last minute changes.

A list of sites that mirror the NetBSD3.0.2 distribution.

README describing the distribution's contents.

NetBSD's todo list (also somewhat incomplete and out of date).

Post-release source code patches.

Source distribution sets; see below.

In addition to the files and directories listed above, there is one directory per architecture, for each of the architectures for which NetBSD3.0.2 has a binary distribution.

The source distribution sets can be found in subdirectories of the source subdirectory of the distribution tree. They contain the complete sources to the system. The source distribution sets are as follows:

This set contains the ``gnu'' sources, including the source for the compiler, assembler, groff, and the other GNU utilities in the binary distribution sets.
79 MB gzipped, 367 MB uncompressed

This set contains the ``pkgsrc'' sources, which contain the infrastructure to build third-party packages.
24 MB gzipped, 200 MB uncompressed

This set contains the ``share'' sources, which include the sources for the man pages not associated with any particular program; the sources for the typesettable document set; the dictionaries; and more.
5 MB gzipped, 20 MB uncompressed

This set contains all of the base NetBSD3.0.2 sources which are not in gnusrc, sharesrc, or syssrc.
37 MB gzipped, 176 MB uncompressed

This set contains the sources to the NetBSD3.0.2 kernel for all architectures; config(8); and dbsym(8).
26 MB gzipped, 140 MB uncompressed

This set contains the sources to the X Window System.
84 MB gzipped, 450 MB uncompressed

All the above source sets are located in the source/sets subdirectory of the distribution tree.

The source sets are distributed as compressed tar files. Except for the pkgsrc set, which is traditionally unpacked into /usr/pkgsrc, all sets may be unpacked into /usr/src with the command:
       #( cd / ; tar -zxpf - ) < set_name.tgz

In each of the source distribution set directories, there are files which contain the checksums of the files in the directory:

Historic BSD checksums for the various files in that directory, in the format produced by the command:
cksum -o 1 file.

POSIX checksums for the various files in that directory, in the format produced by the command:
cksum file.

MD5 digests for the various files in that directory, in the format produced by the command:
cksum-m file.

Historic AT&T System V UNIX checksums for the various files in that directory, in the format produced by the command:
cksum -o 2 file.

The MD5 digest is the safest checksum, followed by the POSIX checksum. The other two checksums are provided only to ensure that the widest possible range of system can check the integrity of the release files.

NetBSD/mvme68k subdirectory structure
The mvme68k-specific portion of the NetBSD3.0.2 release is found in the mvme68k subdirectory of the distribution: .../NetBSD-3.0.2/mvme68k/. It contains the following files and directories:

Installation notes in various file formats, including this file. The .more file contains underlined text using the more(1) conventions for indicating italic and bold display.
A gzipped NetBSD kernel containing code for everything supported in this release.
A kernel for MVME147 boards.
A kernel for MVME162 boards.
A kernel for MVME167 boards.
A kernel for MVME172 boards.
A kernel for MVME177 boards.
mvme68k binary distribution sets; see below.
mvme68k miniroot file system image; see below.
Two programs needed to boot mvme68k kernels over the network; see below.
Tape boot programs, and a RAMDISK kernel; see below.
Binary distribution sets
The NetBSD mvme68k binary distribution sets contain the binaries which comprise the NetBSD3.0.2 release for the mvme68k. The binary distribution sets can be found in the mvme68k/binary/sets subdirectory of the NetBSD3.0.2 distribution tree, and are as follows:

The NetBSD3.0.2 mvme68k base binary distribution. You must install this distribution set. It contains the base NetBSD utilities that are necessary for the system to run and be minimally functional. It includes shared library support, and excludes everything described below.
16 MB gzipped, 46 MB uncompressed

Things needed for compiling programs. This set includes the system include files (/usr/include) and the various system libraries (except the shared libraries, which are included as part of the base set). This set also includes the manual pages for all of the utilities it contains, as well as the system call and library manual pages.
18 MB gzipped, 69 MB uncompressed

This distribution set contains the system configuration files that reside in /etc and in several other places. This set must be installed if you are installing the system from scratch, but should not be used if you are upgrading.
1 MB gzipped, 1 MB uncompressed

This set includes the games and their manual pages.
3 MB gzipped, 7 MB uncompressed

This set contains a NetBSD/mvme68k 3.0.2 GENERIC kernel, named /netbsd. You must install this distribution set.
1 MB gzipped, 2 MB uncompressed

This set includes all of the manual pages for the binaries and other software contained in the base set. Note that it does not include any of the manual pages that are included in the other sets.
8 MB gzipped, 30 MB uncompressed

This set includes the (rather large) system dictionaries, the typesettable document set, and other files from /usr/share.
3 MB gzipped, 9 MB uncompressed

This set includes NetBSD's text processing tools, including groff(1), all related programs, and their manual pages.
2 MB gzipped, 7 MB uncompressed

NetBSD maintains its own set of sources for the X Window System in order to assure tight integration and compatibility. These sources are based on XFree86, and tightly track XFree86 releases. They are currently equivalent to XFree86 4.4.0. Binary sets for the X Window System are distributed with NetBSD. The sets are:

The basic files needed for a complete X client environment. This does not include the X servers.
6 MB gzipped, 17 MB uncompressed

The extra libraries and include files needed to compile X source code.
10 MB gzipped, 37 MB uncompressed

Fonts needed by X.
31 MB gzipped, 39 MB uncompressed

Configuration files for X which could be locally modified.
0.03 MB gzipped, 0.17 MB uncompressed

The X server.
3 MB gzipped, 7 MB uncompressed

The mvme68k binary distribution sets are distributed as gzipped tar files named with the extension .tgz, e.g. base.tgz.

The instructions given for extracting the source sets work equally well for the binary sets, but it is worth noting that if you use that method, the filenames stored in the sets are relative and therefore the files are extracted below the current directory. Therefore, if you want to extract the binaries into your system, i.e. replace the system binaries with them, you have to run the tar -xpf command from the root directory ( / ) of your system. This utility is used only in a Traditional method installation.

The following are included in the mvme68k/installation directory:


The sysinst method of installation is the preferred method for installing NetBSD/mvme68k. The Traditional method of installation is deprecated and will be removed in a future release. Some other important differences between the two installation methods are:

  • The Installer and Mkfs utilities are not used if the installation is done using the sysinst method via booting an Installation Kernel.

  • Mkfs creates a 4.3BSD "old" format file system. This is the only file system format understood by the Installer. The sysinst process creates "new" file systems which can't be processed by Mkfs or the Installer.

  • The Installer (and probably Mkfs) is known to have problems with BSD file systems that are larger than 1 GB or extend beyond the 1 GB physical limit. Keep this in mind if doing a Traditional method installation with these utilities.

  • The Booter is known to have problems booting from a NetBSD file system if the inode of the kernel file is to large. For large disks it is advisable to have a small root partition and one or more usr-type partitions for other files. This ensures the inode of the kernel in the root file system will be small.

  • The Booter is designed to work with 4.3BSD "old" file systems, but there are enough similarities between the "old" and "new" file system formats in the first few hundred blocks that the Booter can usually boot a Kernel from a 4.3BSD new file system. If you choose to use "new" file system formats, it is advisable to use a small root partition and one or more usr-type partitions for other files. This is the default layout used by sysinst.

A copy of the miniroot file system. This file system image is copied into the swap partition of the disk which you intend to boot NetBSD from. Normally, this step will be performed manually from the ramdisk boot environment.


An MVME147 bootstrap program in Motorola S-Record format. This is required when you wish to boot an MVME147 over the network since the ROM has no built-in network support. Instructions for getting this program into memory are discussed later.

A standalone 2nd stage bootstrap program loaded over the network via TFTP. This is responsible for fetching and starting the NetBSD mvme68k kernel from an NFS server.


This file contains a boot sector for Motorola MVME boards. It must be the first file written to a tape in order to make the tape bootable.

This file contains a bootstrap program which knows how to load the NetBSD mvme68k ramdisk image from tape. This must be the second file written to the tape.

This is the NetBSD mvme68k ramdisk image. It contains a GENERIC kernel and a built in RAMDISK with just enough tools to partition a disk, dump the miniroot kernel to it and make the disk bootable. This must be the third file written to the tape.

Each directory in the mvme68k binary distribution also has its own checksum files, just as the source distribution does.

NetBSD/mvme68k System Requirements and Supported Devices

NetBSD/mvme68k 3.0.2 runs on Motorola MVME147 , MVME162 , MVME167 , MVME172 , and MVME177 Single Board Computers.

The minimal configuration requires 8 MB of RAM and ~200 MB of disk space. To install the entire system requires much more disk space (approx. 600 MB additional space is necessary for full sources. Double that if you want to recompile it all!). To run X (clients only) or compile the system, more RAM is recommended. Good performance requires 16 MB of RAM, or 32 MB when running the X Window System.

Note that you can install NetBSD 3.0.2 on a system with only 4 MB of onboard RAM, but you will need to use a VMEbus RAM card with at least another 4 MB to augment the onboard memory in order to actually install the system.

Here is a table of recommended HD partition sizes for a full install:

Partition Suggested Needed
/ (root) 32 MB 26 MB
/usr 200 MB 150 MB
/var 32 MB 6 MB
swap 2-3 *RAM 16 MB

Anything else is up to you!

Note that the NetBSD/mvme68k installation procedure uses a miniroot image which is placed into the swap area of the disk. The swap partition must be large enough to hold this miniroot image (> 7.5 MB).

Supported VME147 hardware
Supported VME162/VME172 hardware
Supported VME167/VME177 hardware

If it's not on the above lists, there is no support for it in this release.

Getting the NetBSD System on to Useful Media

Installation is supported from several media types, including:

Note that installing on a `bare' machine requires either a bootable tape drive or an ethernet to a compatible NFS server. MVME147 may also need to be booted over an RS232 connection.

The procedure for transferring the distribution sets onto installation media depends on the type of media. Instructions for each type of media are given below.

In order to create installation media, you will need all the files and subdirectories in these two directories:


Creating boot/install tapes
Installing from tape is the simplest method of all. This method uses two tapes, one containing a bootable ramdisk and miniroot, the other containing the installation sets.

The boot tape is created as follows:

       # cd .../NetBSD-3.0.2/mvme68k/installation
       # set T = /dev/nrst0
       # mt -f $T rewind
       # dd if=tapeimage/stboot of=$T
       # dd if=tapeimage/bootst of=$T obs=8k conv=osync
       # gzip -dc tapeimage/netbsd-RAMDISK.gz | dd of=$T obs=8k conv=osync
       # gzip -dc miniroot/miniroot.fs.gz | dd of=$T obs=8k conv=osync
       # mt -f $T rewind

The installation set tape is created as follows:

       # cd .../NetBSD-3.0.2/mvme68k/binary/sets
       # set T = /dev/nrst0
       # mt -f $T rewind
       # for f in base etc comp games man misc text; do
       gzip -d < $f.tgz | dd of=$T bs=8k
       # done
       # mt -f $T rewind

If the tape does not work as expected, you may need to explicitly set the EOF mark at the end of each tape segment. Consult the tape-related manual pages on the system where the tapes are created for more details.

Boot/Install from NFS server
If your machine has a disk and network connection, but no tape drive, it may be convenient for you to install NetBSD over the network. This involves temporarily booting your machine over NFS, just long enough so you can initialize its disk. This method requires that you have access to an NFS server on your network so you can configure it to support diskless boot for your machine. Configuring the NFS server is normally a task for a system administrator, and is not trivial.

If you are using a NetBSD system as the boot-server, have a look at the diskless(8) manual page for guidelines on how to proceed with this. If the server runs another operating system, consult the documentation that came with it (i.e. add_client(8) on SunOS).

Booting an MVME147 from ethernet is not possible without first downloading a small bootstrap program (sboot) via RS232. See the section entitled Installing from NFS for details on how to accomplish this.

sboot expects to be able to download a second stage bootstrap program via TFTP after having acquired its IP address through RARP It will look for a filename derived from the machine's IP address expressed in hexadecimal, with an extension of `.147'. For example, an MVME147 with IP address will make an TFTP request for 8273900B.147. Normally, this file is just a symbolic link to the NetBSD/mvme68k netboot program, which should be located in a place where the TFTP daemon can find it (remember, many TFTP daemons run in a chroot'ed environment). The netboot program may be found in the install directory of this distribution.

The MVME162 , MVME167 , MVME172 , and MVME177 boot ROMs have code builtin to boot over ethernet from a TFTP server. You should configure it to download the same netboot program as is used for MVME147.

The netboot program will query a bootparamd server to find the NFS server address and path name for its root, and then load a kernel from that location. The server should have a copy of the netbsd-RAMDISK kernel in the root area for your client (no other files are needed in the client root, although it might be a convenient place to put the uncompressed miniroot image) and /etc/bootparams on the server should have an entry for your client and its root directory. Note that you should rename the netbsd-RAMDISK kernel to just netbsd in the client's root directory before trying to netboot the client.

The client will need access to the miniroot image, which can be provided using NFS or remote shell. If using NFS, miniroot.fs.gz should be expanded on the server, because doing so from the RAMDISK shell is not so easy. The unzipped miniroot takes about 7.5 MB of space.

If you will be installing NetBSD on several clients, it may be useful to know that you can use a single NFS root for all the clients as long as they only use the netbsd-RAMDISK kernel. There will be no conflict between clients because the RAM-disk kernel will not use the NFS root. No swap file is needed; the RAM-disk kernel does not use that either.

Install/Upgrade from CD-ROM
This method requires that you boot from another device (i.e. tape or network, as described above). You may need to make a boot tape on another machine using the files provided on the CD-ROM. Once you have booted netbsd-RAMDISK (the RAMDISK kernel) and loaded the miniroot, you can load any of the distribution sets directly from the CD-ROM. The install program in the miniroot automates the work required to mount the CD-ROM and extract the files.
Install/Upgrade via FTP
This method requires that you boot from another device (i.e. tape or network, as described above). You may need to make a boot tape on another machine using the files in .../install (which you get via FTP). Once you have booted netbsd-RAMDISK (the RAM-disk kernel) and loaded the miniroot, you can load any of the distribution sets over the net using FTP. The install program in the miniroot automates the work required to configure the network interface and transfer the files.

This method, of course, requires network access to an FTP server. This might be a local system, or it might even be itself. If you wish to use as your FTP file server, you may want to keep the following information handy:

No IP Address:
Login: anonymous
Password: <your e-mail address>
Server path: /pub/NetBSD/NetBSD-3.0.2/mvme68k/binary

If you're not using a nameserver during installation, you might find handy; it's the IP address of as of October, 2000.

Preparing your System for NetBSD installation

mvme68k machines usually need little or no preparation before installing NetBSD, other than the usual, well advised precaution of backing up all data on any attached storage devices.

The exception to the above is that MVME162 , MVME167 , MVME172 and MVME177 boards require a jumper to be removed or DIP switch changed before NetBSD can be installed. On MVME162-LX and MVME172-LX pins 1-2 of jumper J11 must be removed. On MVME162-P2/P4 and MVME172-P2/P4 switch S4, position 8 must be set to OFF. On MVME167 and MVME177 pins 1-2 of jumper J1 must be removed.

Once you've made any necessary jumper changes, the following instructions should make your machine ``NetBSD Ready''.

Power-up your MVME147 board. You should have the bug prompt:

COLD Start

Onboard RAM start = $00000000, stop = $007FFFFF


Or, if you have an MVME162/172 or MVME167/177 board (the following boot message is from MVME167; the others are similar):

MVME167 Debugger/Diagnostics Release Version 2.3 - 02/25/94
COLD Start

Local Memory Found =02000000 (&33554432)

MPU Clock Speed =33Mhz


Make sure the RAM size looks ok (if you've got an 8 MB MVME147 or a 32 MB MVME167 you should have the same value as we do). Also make sure the clock is ticking:

       Sunday 12/21/31 16:25:14
       Sunday 12/21/31 16:25:15

Note that NetBSD bases its year at 1968, and adds the year offset in the system's real-time clock to get the current year. So the 31 here equates to 1999. You may have to adjust your clock using the set command to comply with NetBSD 's requirements. Don't worry if the `Day of the week' is not correct, as NetBSD doesn't use it. Motorola has acknowledged a year 2000 bug in some versions of the MVME147 whereby the day of the week doesn't get set correctly by the 147Bug PROM. does not affect NetBSD !

Also make sure that your board's ethernet address is initialised to the correct value. You'll find the address on a label on the inside of the MVME147's front panel, and on the VMEbus P2 connector of the other board types. On the MVME147, enter the last five digits of the address using the lsad command. On the MVME162/172 and MVME167/177, you should use the cnfg command.

The NetBSD kernel reads the first two long words of the onboard NVRAM to determine the starting and ending address of any VMEbus RAM that should be used by the system. You should verify that this area is set properly for your configuration.

If you have no VMEbus RAM boards, the values should be set to zero (0).

For an MVME162, MVME167, MVME172 or MVME177 board, at the 1xx-Bug> prompt:

       1xx-Bug>mm fffc0000 ;l
       fffc0000: xxxxxxxx?0
       fffc0004: xxxxxxxx?0
       fffc0008: xxxxxxxx?.

For an MVME147 board, at the 147Bug prompt:

       147Bug>mm fffe0764 ;l
       fffe0764: xxxxxxxx?0
       fffe0768: xxxxxxxx?0
       fffe076c: xxxxxxxx?.

If you do have VMEbus RAM available and want NetBSD to use it, the first long word should be set to the starting address of this RAM and the second long word should be set to the ending address.

If you have more than one VMEbus RAM board installed, the starting and ending addresses must be contiguous from one board to the next. Also note that, for various reasons beyond the scope of this document, VMEbus RAM should be configured in A32 address space.

To install successfully to a local SCSI disk, you need to ensure that the system is aware of what targets are connected to the SCSI bus. This can be done by issuing the following command:

       1xx-Bug> iot;t

At this point, Bug will scan for any attached SCSI devices. After a short delay, a list of SCSI devices will be displayed. 147Bug will ask if LUNs should be assigned from SCSI ids, to which you should answer Y. You should also answer Y when asked if the information is to be saved to NVRAM. 16xBug does not prompt for this information.

The following installation instructions will assume that your target SCSI disk drive appears at SCSI-ID 0. If you have a tape drive, the instructions assume is is configured for SCSI-ID 5. When the RAMDISK root boots, NetBSD will refer to these devices as sd0 and rst0 respectively. You may wish to note these down; you'll be using them a lot. :-)

Installing the NetBSD System

Installing NetBSD is a relatively complex process, but if you have this document in hand it should not be too difficult.

There are several ways to install NetBSD onto your disk. If your MVME147 machine has a tape drive the easiest way is Installing from tape (details below). All other machines can be installed easily over the network from a suitable NFS server. See Installing from NFS for details. Otherwise, if you have another mvme68k machine running NetBSD you can initialize the disk on that machine and then move the disk.

Installing from tape
Create the NetBSD/mvme68k 3.0.2 boot tape as described in the section entitled Preparing a boot tape. Then, with the tape in the drive, type the following at the Bug prompt:

       147-Bug> bo 5

       16x-Bug> bo 0,50

As mentioned earlier, this assumes your tape is jumpered for SCSI-ID 5.

As the tape loads (which may take 20 to 30 seconds), you will see a series of status messages. It may be useful if you can capture these messages to a file, or a scrollable xterm window. In particular, you should make a note of the lines which describe the geometry of the SCSI disks detected by NetBSD. They are of the form:

sd0 at scsibus0 targ 0 lun 0: <Maker, Disk, Foo> SCSI1 0/direct fixed
sd0: 800 MB, 800 cyl, 16 head, 128 sec, 512 bytes/sect x 1638400 sectors

The information of most interest is the number of sectors; for the fictitious disk above, it's 1638400. You will need this number when you come to create a disklabel for that drive.

Here is an example of an MVME147 system booting from tape:

RAM address from VMEbus = $00000000

Booting from: VME147, Controller 5, Device 0 Loading: Operating System

Volume: NBSD

IPL loaded at: $003F0000 >> BSD MVME147 tapeboot [$Revision: 1.17 $] 578616+422344+55540+[46032+51284]=0x11a6e4 Start @ 0x8000 ... Copyright (c) 1996, 1997, 1998, 1999, 2000 The NetBSD Foundation, Inc. All rights reserved. Copyright (c) 1982, 1986, 1989, 1991, 1993 The Regents of the University of California. All rights reserved.

NetBSD 1.5 (RAMDISK) #1: Sun Oct 29 16:19:04 GMT 2000 steve@fatbob:/usr/src/sys/arch/mvme68k/compile/RAMDISK Motorola MVME-147S: 25MHz MC68030 CPU+MMU, MC68882 FPU real mem = 7237632 avail mem = 6381568 using 88 buffers containing 360448 bytes of memory mainbus0 (root) pcc0 at mainbus0: Peripheral Channel Controller, rev 0, vecbase 0x40 clock0 at pcc0 offset 0x0 ipl 5: Mostek MK48T02, 2048 bytes of NVRAM . .

The exact text of the messages will vary depending on which mvme68k variant you're using.

Finally, you will see the following "welcome" message:

        Welcome to the NetBSD/mvme68k RAMDISK root!

This environment is designed to do only four things: 1: Partition your disk (use the command: edlabel /dev/rsd0c) 2: Copy a miniroot image into the swap partition (/dev/rsd0b) 3: Make that partition bootable (using 'installboot') 4: Reboot (using the swap partition, i.e. /dev/sd0b).

Copying the miniroot can be done several ways, allowing the source of the miniroot image to be on any of these: boot tape, NFS server, TFTP server, rsh server

The easiest is loading from tape, which is done as follows: mt -f /dev/nrst0 rewind mt -f /dev/nrst0 fsf 3 dd bs=8k if=/dev/nrst0 of=/dev/rsd0b (For help with other methods, please see the install notes.)

To reboot using the swap partition after running installboot, first use halt, then at the Bug monitor prompt use a command like: 1x7Bug> bo 0,,b:

To view this message again, type: cat /.welcome #

You must now create a disklabel on the disk you wish to use for the root file system (/). This will usually be sd0. The disklabel is used by NetBSD to identify the starting block and size of each partition on the disk.

Partitions are named sd0a, sd0b, sd0c, etc, up to sd0h. The mvme68k port of NetBSD makes some assumptions about the first three partitions on a boot disk:

The root file system (/).
The swap partition.
The whole disk. Also known as the raw partition.

The raw partition is special; NetBSD is able to use it even if the disk has no label. You should never create a file system on the Raw Partition, even on a non-boot disk.

It is good practice to put /usr on a different partition than / (root, AKA sd0a). So, the first available partition for /usr is sd0d. Refer to the section entitled NetBSD System Requirements and Supported Devices for information on the recommended sizes of the / (root), /usr and swap partitions.

You are not required to define any partitions beyond sd0d, but if you have a large disk drive, you might want to create several other partitions for file systems such as /home or /usr/src. Note that at this time you are only required to partition the root/boot disk; you will get the opportunity to partition any other disks in your system from the main miniroot installation program.

To create the disklabel and partitions, use the edlabel program, passing it the name of the Raw Partition of your root/boot disk.

       # edlabel /dev/rsd0c
       edlabel menu:
       print - display the current disk label
       modify - prompt for changes to the label
       write - write the new label to disk
       quit - terminate program

The program shows what commands it recognizes; print, modify, write, and quit. It will accept the first letter of a command if you don't feel like typing each one in full.

To start creating the basic partitions, you should enter m (modify) at the edlabel prompt, then enter the letter corresponding to the first partition, a.

       edlabel> m

       modify subcommands:
       @: modify disk parameters
       a-h: modify partition
       s: standardize geometry
       q: quit this subcommand
       edlabel/modify> a
       a (root) 0 (0/00/00) 0 (0/00/00) unused
       start as <blkno> or <cyls/trks/sects>: 0
       length as <nblks> or <cyls/trks/sects>: 65536
       type: 4.2BSD

When you enter the start and length of a partition, you can use either blocks or cylinder/track/sector notation. If this is the first time you've partitioned a disk for NetBSD, it's probably easiest to use block notation. The above example creates partition `a', starting at block zero and with a size of 65536 blocks. Note that the usual size of a block is 512 bytes, so this creates a 32 MB partition.

The type of the partition should be 4.2BSD, otherwise you won't be able to create a file system on it.

Next, create a swap partition (b). Note that the minimum size of this swap partition should be 8 MB, otherwise you won't be able to use a miniroot to complete the NetBSD installation!

       edlabel/modify> b
       b (swap) 0 (0/00/00) 0 (0/00/00) unused
       start as <blkno> or <cyls/trks/sects>: 65536
       length as <nblks> or <cyls/trks/sects>: 32768
       type: swap

Here, we specify a value for start such that the swap partition follows immediately after partition `a', i.e. 65536. The length of the swap partition should be a multiple of the amount of RAM you have in your system. Here, we've chosen 32768, or 16 MB. The next available block on the drive is thus 65536 + 32768. We will use this to create partition `d' for our /usr file system. (Note that for a busy system, or a system with more than 8 MB of RAM, you'll be better off with a 32 or 64 MB swap partition.)

       edlabel/modify> d
       d (user) 0 (0/00/00) 0 (0/00/00) unused
       start as <blkno> or <cyls/trks/sects>: 98304
       length as <nblks> or <cyls/trks/sects>: 1540096
       type: 4.2BSD
       edlabel/modify> q

As you can see, we've chosen to assign the remainder of the disk to /usr. Since there are 1638400 sectors on the example disk (did you remember to note down the number of sectors on your disk during boot?), and partition d starts at sector 98304, a simple bit of arithmetic (1638400 - 98304) gives d a size of 1540096.

Note that the above partition sizes are just guidelines. If your disk is large enough, you should resize the partitions appropriately and perhaps also create a /var partition as well.

You now need to write this new disklabel, together with the partition details you've just entered, to disk. You might also try the `p' command to view the partitions. Once written, you can quit back to the shell using `q'.

       edlabel> p

                                                                             type_num: 4
                                                                             sub_type: 0
       type_name: SCSI disk
       pack_name: fictitious
    bytes/sector: 512
   sectors/track: 128
 tracks/cylinder: 16
       cylinders: 800
sectors/cylinder: 2048
partition      start         (c/t/s)      nblks         (c/t/s)  type

a (root) 0 (0/00/00) 65536 (32/00/00) 4.2BSD b (swap) 65536 (32/00/00) 32768 (48/00/00) swap c (disk) 0 (0/00/00) 1638400 (800/00/00) unused d (user) 98304 (48/00/00) 1540096 (752/00/00) 4.2BSD

       edlabel> w
       edlabel> q

Now that your disk's partitioned, you need to get the proper installation miniroot image onto it. The miniroot image is designed to be copied into the swap partition of your disk. This is a safe place which won't be overwritten by the installation procedure. From the shell prompt, use the following commands to copy the miniroot image from tape to swap (b).

       # mt -f /dev/nrst0 rewind
       # mt -f /dev/nrst0 fsf 3
       # dd bs=8k if=/dev/nrst0 of=/dev/rsd0b

The disk and the miniroot must now be made bootable using the installboot(8) command. To do this, issue the following commands:

       # mount /dev/sd0b /mnt
       # installboot /mnt/usr/mdec/bootsd /bootxx /dev/rsd0b
       # umount /dev/sd0b

You can now shutdown the system.

       # halt
       signal 15
       syncing disks... done
       unmounting / (root_device)...

       147-Bug> reset
       Reset Local SCSI Bus [Y,N] N? y
       Automatic reset of known SCSI Buses on RESET [Y,N] Y?
       Cold/Warm Reset flag [C,W] = C?
       Execute Soft Reset [Y,N] N? y

Resetting the other types of MVME boards are very similar. You should now reboot from that just installed miniroot. See the section entitled Booting the miniroot for details.

Installing from NFS
Before you can install from NFS, you must have already configured your NFS server to support your machine as a bootable client. Instructions for configuring the server are found in the section entitled Getting the NetBSD System onto Useful Media above.

To get started on the MVME147, you need to download sboot into RAM (you will find sboot in the install directory of the mvme68k distribution). You can either do that through the console line or through a 2nd serial connection. For example, an MVME147 connected to a sun4/110 and accessed via tip(1) can be loaded as follows:

lo 0
~Ccat sboot
go 4000

Which will look like this:

       147-Bug> lo 0
       ~CLocal command? cat sboot

away for 11 seconds


       147-Bug> g 4000
       Effective address: 00004000

       sboot: serial line bootstrap program (end = 6018)


Now, if you want to do it through serial line 1, then connect serial line one to a machine. At the 147-Bug> prompt type tm 1 You should then login to the machine it is connected to. Then press CONTROL-A to escape to Bug. Do lo 1;x=cat sboot ... then when that is done you can reconnect tm 1 and logout. Then do go 4000 and you've got the >>> prompt of sboot.

Once you've got the >>> prompt, you can boot the RAMDISK kernel from the server:

       >>> b

le0: ethernet address: 8:0:3e:20:cb:87
My ip address is:
Server ip address is:
Download was a success!

See below for the next step in booting MVME147.

The MVME162, MVME167, MVME172 and MVME177 boards are able to download netboot directly using TFTP. To enable this, you must first configure the networking parameters on the board as described in the section entitled "Preparing your System for NetBSD Installation. On a properly configured MVME162/172 or MVME167/177, all you need to type is:

       1xx-Bug> nbo

For all board types, the boot messages are very similar:

Start @ 0x8000 ...
>> BSD MVME147 netboot (via sboot) [$Revision: 1.17 $]
device: le0 attached to 08:00:3e:20:cb:87
boot: client IP address:
boot: client name: soapy
root addr= path=/export/soapy
Start @ 0x8000 ...
Copyright (c) 1996, 1997, 1998, 1999, 2000
    The NetBSD Foundation, Inc.  All rights reserved.
Copyright (c) 1982, 1986, 1989, 1991, 1993
    The Regents of the University of California.  All rights reserved.

NetBSD 1.5 (RAMDISK) #1: Sun Oct 29 16:19:04 GMT 2000 steve@fatbob:/usr/src/sys/arch/mvme68k/compile/RAMDISK Motorola MVME-147S: 25MHz MC68030 CPU+MMU, MC68882 FPU real mem = 7237632 avail mem = 6381568 using 88 buffers containing 360448 bytes of memory mainbus0 (root) pcc0 at mainbus0: Peripheral Channel Controller, rev 0, vecbase 0x40 clock0 at pcc0 offset 0x0 ipl 5: Mostek MK48T02, 2048 bytes of NVRAM . .

After the boot program loads the RAMDISK kernel, you should see the welcome screen as shown in the "tape boot" section above.

You now need to create a disklabel with partition information on the SCSI disk on which you intend to create your root file system (/). Follow the instructions in the previous section entitled Installing from tape to do this. (But stop short of the part which describes how to copy the miniroot from tape.)

You must now configure the network interface before you can access the NFS server containing the miniroot image. For example the command:

       # ifconfig le0 inet up

will bring up the MVME147 network interface le0 with that address. The command:

       # ifconfig ie0 inet up

will bring up the MVME162/172 or MVME167/177 network interface ie0 with that address. The next step is to copy the miniroot from your server. This can be done using either NFS or remote shell. (In the examples that follow, the server has IP address You may then need to add a default route if the server is on a different subnet:

       # route add default 1

You can look at the route table using:

       # route show

Now mount the NFS file system containing the miniroot image:

       # mount -r /mnt

The procedure is simpler if you have space for an expanded (not compressed) copy of the miniroot image. In that case:

       # dd bs=8k if=/mnt/miniroot of=/dev/rsd0b

Otherwise, you will need to use gzcat to expand the miniroot image while copying.

       # gzcat miniroot.fs.gz | dd obs=8k of=/dev/rsd0b

You must now make the disk bootable. Refer to the previous section on installing from tape, where it describes how to run installboot. This is immediately following the part which explains how to copy the miniroot from tape.

Booting the miniroot
Assuming the miniroot is installed on partition `b' of the disk with SCSI-ID 0, then the boot command is:

       1xx-Bug> bo 0,,b:

The command line parameters above are:

controller (usually zero)

bug argument separators

tell the bootstrap code to boot from partition b

You should see a bunch of boot messages, followed by messages from the miniroot kernel just as you did when the RAMDISK kernel booted.

You will then be prompted to enter the root device. Since the miniroot was booted from the swap partition, you should enter sd0b. You will then be asked for the swap device and file system type. Just press RETURN twice to accept the defaults. When asked to enter a terminal type, either accept the default, or use whatever the TERM environment variable is set to in the shell of your host system:

       boot device: sd0
       root device (default sd0a): sd0b
       dump device (default sd0b): (return)
       file system (default generic): (return)
       root on sd0b dumps on sd0b
       mountroot: trying ffs...
       root file system type: ffs
       init: copying out path `/sbin/init' 11
       erase ^H, werase ^W, kill ^U, intr ^C
       Terminal type? [vt100] return

Congratulations! The system should now be running the miniroot installation program.

Miniroot install program:
The miniroot's install program is very simple to use. It will guide you through the entire process, and is well automated.

Starting with NetBSD version 1.6, you have the option of using sysinst instead of the old installation and upgrade shell scripts. At this time, sysinst is not capable of installing distribution sets from tape. In such a case, you should fallback to the shell script installation or upgrade procedure. In all other cases, sysinst should be used. Note that as soon as sysinst can deal with tapes, the shell script tools will be removed.

The miniroot's install program (both sysinst and the shell script version) will:

First-time installation on a system through a method other than the installation program is possible, but strongly discouraged.

Running the sysinst installation program

  1. Introduction

    Using sysinst, installing NetBSD is a relatively easy process. You still should read this document and have it in hand when doing the installation process. This document tries to be a good guideline for the installation and as such covers many details for the sake of completeness. Do not let this discourage you; the install program is not hard to use.

  2. General

    The following is a walk-through of the steps you will take while getting NetBSD installed on your hard disk. sysinst is a menu driven installation system that allows for some freedom in doing the installation. Sometimes, questions will be asked and in many cases the default answer will be displayed in brackets (``[ ]'') after the question. If you wish to stop the installation, you may press CONTROL-C at any time, but if you do, you'll have to begin the installation process again from scratch by running the /sysinst program from the command prompt. It is not necessary to reboot.

  3. Quick install

    First, let's describe a quick install. The other sections of this document go into the installation procedure in more detail, but you may find that you do not need this. If you want detailed instructions, skip to the next section. This section describes a basic installation, using a CD-ROM install as an example.

  4. Booting NetBSD

    Boot your machine. The boot loader will start, and will print a countdown and begin booting.

    If the boot loader messages do not appear in a reasonable amount of time, you either have a bad boot floppy or a hardware problem. Try writing the install floppy image to a different disk, and using that.

    It will take a while to load the kernel from the floppy, probably around a minute or so, then, the kernel boot messages will be displayed. This may take a little while also, as NetBSD will be probing your system to discover which hardware devices are installed. The most important thing to know is that wd0 is NetBSD's name for your first IDE disk, wd1 the second, etc. sd0 is your first SCSI disk, sd1 the second, etc.

    Note that once the system has finished booting, you need not leave the floppy in the disk drive.

    Once NetBSD has booted and printed all the boot messages, you will be presented with a welcome message and a main menu. It will also include instructions for using the menus.

  5. Network configuration

    If you will not use network operation during the installation, but you do want your machine to be configured for networking once it is installed, you should first go to the Utility menu, and select the Configure network option. If you only want to temporarily use networking during the installation, you can specify these parameters later. If you are not using the Domain Name System (DNS), you can give an empty response in reply to answers relating to this.

  6. Installation drive selection and parameters

    To start the installation, select Install NetBSD to hard disk from the main menu.

    The first thing is to identify the disk on which you want to install NetBSD. sysinst will report a list of disks it finds and ask you for your selection. Depending on how many disks are found, you may get a different message. You should see disk names like sd0 or sd1.

  7. Partitioning the disk

  8. Editing the NetBSD disklabel

    The partition table of the NetBSD part of a disk is called a disklabel. There are 4 layouts for the NetBSD part of the disk that you can pick from: Standard, Standard with X, Custom and Use Existing. The first two use a set of default values (that you can change) suitable for a normal installation, possibly including X. With the Custom option you can specify everything yourself. The last option uses the partition info already present on the disk.

    You will be presented with the current layout of the NetBSD disklabel, and given a chance to change it. For each partition, you can set the type, offset and size, block and fragment size, and the mount point. The type that NetBSD uses for normal file storage is called 4.2BSD. A swap partition has a special type called swap. Some partitions in the disklabel have a fixed purpose.

    Root partition (/)

    Swap partition.

    The NetBSD portion of the disk.

    Available for other use. Traditionally, d is the partition mounted on /usr, but this is historical practice and not a fixed value.

    You will then be asked to name your disk's disklabel. The default response will be ok for most purposes. If you choose to name it something different, make sure the name is a single word and contains no special characters. You don't need to remember this name.

  9. Preparing your hard disk

    You are now at the point of no return. Nothing has been written to your disk yet, but if you confirm that you want to install NetBSD, your hard drive will be modified. If you are sure you want to proceed, enter yes at the prompt.

    The install program will now label your disk and make the file systems you specified. The file systems will be initialized to contain NetBSD bootstrapping binaries and configuration files. You will see messages on your screen from the various NetBSD disk preparation tools that are running. There should be no errors in this section of the installation. If there are, restart from the beginning of the installation process. Otherwise, you can continue the installation program after pressing the return key.

  10. Getting the distribution sets

    The NetBSD distribution consists of a number of sets, that come in the form of gzipped tarfiles. A few sets must be installed for a working system, others are optional. At this point of the installation, you will be presented with a menu which enables you to choose from one of the following methods of installing the sets. Some of these methods will first load the sets on your hard disk, others will extract the sets directly.

    For all these methods, the first step is making the sets available for extraction, and then do the actual installation. The sets can be made available in a few different ways. The following sections describe each of those methods. After reading the one about the method you will be using, you can continue to the section labeled `Extracting the distribution sets'.

  11. Installation using ftp

    To be able to install using ftp, you first need to configure your network setup, if you haven't already at the start of the install procedure. sysinst will do this for you, asking you if you want to use DHCP, and if not to provide data like IP address, hostname, etc. If you do not have name service set up for the machine that you are installing on, you can just press RETURN in answer to these questions, and DNS will not be used.

    You will also be asked to specify the host that you want to transfer the sets from, the directory on that host, the account name and password used to log into that host using ftp, and optionally a proxy server to use. If you did not set up DNS when answering the questions to configure networking, you will need to specify an IP address instead of a hostname for the ftp server.

    sysinst will proceed to transfer all the default set files from the remote site to your hard disk.

  12. Installation using NFS

    To be able to install using NFS, you first need to configure your network setup, if you haven't already at the start of the install procedure. sysinst will do this for you, asking you if you want to use DHCP, and if not to provide data like IP address, hostname, etc. If you do not have name service set up for the machine that you are installing on, you can just press RETURN in answer to these questions, and DNS will not be used.

    You will also be asked to specify the host that you want to transfer the sets from, and the directory on that host that the files are in. This directory should be mountable by the machine you are installing on, i.e. correctly exported to your machine.

    If you did not set up DNS when answering the questions to configure networking, you will need to specify an IP address instead of a hostname for the NFS server.

  13. Installation from CD-ROM

    When installing from a CD-ROM, you will be asked to specify the device name for your CD-ROM player (usually cd0), and the directory name on the CD-ROM where the distribution files are.

    sysinst will then check if the files are indeed available in the specified location, and proceed to the actual extraction of the sets.

  14. Installation from an unmounted file system

    In order to install from a local file system, you will need to specify the device that the file system resides on (for example sd1e) the type of the file system, and the directory on the specified file system where the sets are located. sysinst will then check if it can indeed access the sets at that location.

  15. Installation from a local directory

    This option assumes that you have already done some preparation yourself. The sets should be located in a directory on a file system that is already accessible. sysinst will ask you for the name of this directory.

  16. Extracting the distribution sets

    After the install sets containing the NetBSD distribution have been made available, you can either extract all the sets (a full installation), or only extract sets that you have selected. In the latter case, you will be shown the currently selected sets, and given the opportunity to select the sets you want. Some sets always need to be installed (kern, base) and etc they will not be shown in this selection menu.

    Before extraction begins, you can elect to watch the files being extracted; the name of each file that is extracted will be shown. This can slow down the installation process considerably, especially on machines with slow graphics consoles or serial consoles.

    After all the files have been extracted, all the necessary device node files will be created. If you have already configured networking, you will be asked if you want to use this configuration for normal operation. If so, these values will be installed in the network configuration files. The next menu will allow you to select the time zone that you're in, to make sure your clock has the right offset from UTC. Finally you will be asked to select a password encryption algorithm and can than set a password for the "root" account, to prevent the machine coming up without access restrictions.

  17. Finalizing your installation

    Congratulations, you have successfully installed NetBSD3.0.2. You can now reboot the machine, and boot NetBSD from hard disk.

Post installation steps

Once you've got the operating system running, there are a few things you need to do in order to bring the system into a properly configured state, with the most important ones described below.

  1. Configuring /etc/rc.conf

    If you or the installation software haven't done any configuration of /etc/rc.conf (sysinst usually will), the system will drop you into single user mode on first reboot with the message

           /etc/rc.conf is not configured. Multiuser boot aborted.

    and with the root file system (/) mounted read-only. When the system asks you to choose a shell, simply press RETURN to get to a /bin/sh prompt. If you are asked for a terminal type, respond with vt220 (or whatever is appropriate for your terminal type) and press RETURN. You may need to type one of the following commands to get your delete key to work properly, depending on your keyboard:
           # stty erase '^h'
           # stty erase '^?'
    At this point, you need to configure at least one file in the /etc directory. You will need to mount your root file system read/write with:
           # /sbin/mount -u -w /
    Change to the /etc directory and take a look at the /etc/rc.conf file. Modify it to your tastes, making sure that you set rc_configured=YES so that your changes will be enabled and a multi-user boot can proceed. Default values for the various programs can be found in /etc/defaults/rc.conf, where some in-line documentation may be found. More complete documentation can be found in rc.conf(5).

    If your /usr directory is on a separate partition and you do not know how to use ed, you will have to mount your /usr partition to gain access to ex or vi. Do the following:

           # mount /usr
           # export TERM=vt220

    If you have /var on a separate partition, you need to repeat that step for it. After that, you can edit /etc/rc.conf with vi(1). When you have finished, type exit at the prompt to leave the single-user shell and continue with the multi-user boot.

    Other values that need to be set in /etc/rc.conf for a networked environment are hostname and possibly defaultroute, furthermore add an ifconfig_int for your <int> network interface, along the lines of

           ifconfig_le0="inet netmask"

    or, if you have in /etc/hosts:

           ifconfig_le0="inet netmask"

    To enable proper hostname resolution, you will also want to add an /etc/resolv.conf file or (if you are feeling a little more adventurous) run named(8). See resolv.conf(5) or named(8) for more information. Instead of manually configuring network and naming service, DHCP can be used by setting dhclient=YES in /etc/rc.conf.

    Other files in /etc that may require modification or setting up include /etc/mailer.conf, /etc/nsswitch.conf, and /etc/wscons.conf.

  2. Logging in

    After reboot, you can log in as root at the login prompt. Unless you've set a password in sysinst, there is no initial password. If you're using the machine in a networked environment, you should create an account for yourself (see below) and protect it and the ``root'' account with good passwords. By default, root login from the network is disabled (even via ssh(1)). One way to become root over the network is to log in as a different user that belongs to group ``wheel'' (see group(5)) and use su(1) to become root.

    Unless you have connected an unusual terminal device as the console you can just press RETURN when it prompts for Terminal type? [...].

  3. Adding accounts

    Use the useradd(8) command to add accounts to your system. Do not edit /etc/passwd directly! See vipw(8) and pwd_mkdb(8) if you want to edit the password database.

  4. The X Window System

    If you have installed the X Window System, look at the files in /usr/X11R6/lib/X11/doc for information.

    Don't forget to add /usr/X11R6/bin to your path in your shell's dot file so that you have access to the X binaries.

  5. Installing third party packages

    If you wish to install any of the software freely available for UNIX-like systems you are strongly advised to first check the NetBSD package system. This automatically handles any changes necessary to make the software run on NetBSD, retrieval and installation of any other packages on which the software may depend, and simplifies installation (and deinstallation), both from source and precompiled binaries.

  6. Misc

Upgrading a previously-installed NetBSD System

It is possible to easily upgrade your existing NetBSD/mvme68k system using the upgrade program in the miniroot or by manually performing the same steps as the miniroot upgrade program.

Upgrading using the miniroot
If you wish to upgrade your system by this method, simply select the upgrade option once the miniroot has booted. The upgrade program with then guide you through the procedure. The upgrade program will:

  1. Enable the network based on your system's current network configuration.

  2. Mount your existing file systems.

  3. Extract binary sets from the media of your choice.

  4. Fixup your system's existing /etc/fstab, changing the occurrences of ufs to ffs and let you edit the resulting file.

  5. Make new device nodes in your root file system under /dev.

  6. Don't forget to extract the kern set from the distribution.

    The existing kernel will not be backed up; doing so would be pointless, since older kernels may not be capable of running NetBSD3.0.2 executables.

  7. Install a new boot block.

  8. Check your file systems for integrity.

  9. You'll have to reboot your system manually
Manual upgrade
While using the miniroot's upgrade program is the preferred method of upgrading your system, it is possible to upgrade your system manually. To do this, follow the following procedure:

  1. Place at least the base binary set in a file system accessible to the target machine. A local file system is preferred, since the NFS subsystem in the NetBSD3.0.2 kernel may be incompatible with your old binaries.

  2. Back up your pre-existing kernel and copy the 3.0.2 kernel into your root partition (/).

  3. Reboot with the 3.0.2 kernel into single-user mode.

  4. Check all file systems:

           # /sbin/fsck -pf

  5. Mount all local file systems:

           # /sbin/mount -a -t nonfs

  6. If you keep /usr or /usr/share on an NFS server, you will want to mount those file systems as well. To do this, you will need to enable the network:

           # sh /etc/rc.d/network start

  7. Make sure you are in the root file system (/) and extract the base binary set:

           # cd /
           # pax -zrvpe -f /path/to/base.tgz

  8. Install a new boot block:

           # cd /usr/mdec
           # cp bootsd /.bootsd
           # ./installboot /.bootsd bootxx < root-disk

    E.g.: root-disk could be /dev/rsd0a.

  9. Sync the file systems:

           # sync

  10. At this point you may extract any other binary sets you may have placed on local file systems, or you may wish to extract additional sets at a later time. To extract these sets, use the following commands:

           # cd /
           # pax -zrvpe -f path_to_set

You should not extract the etc set if upgrading. Instead, you should extract that set into another area and carefully merge the changes by hand.

Compatibility Issues With Previous NetBSD Releases

Users upgrading from previous versions of NetBSD may wish to bear the following problems and compatibility issues in mind when upgrading to NetBSD3.0.2.

Issues affecting an upgrade from NetBSD 2.1 and older releases.
It is very important that you populate the directory /etc/pam.d with appropriate configuration files for the Pluggable Authentication Modules (PAM) because you will not be able to login any more otherwise. Using postinstall as described below will take care of this. Please refer to for documentation about PAM.

The following issues can generally be resolved by extracting the etc set into a temporary directory and running postinstall:

postinstall -s /path/to/etc.tgz check
postinstall -s /path/to/etc.tgz fix

Issues fixed by postinstall: